Adverbials: before, while, the moment
Methodology: During one particular ½ several hours of elicitation, my partner and I with each other elicited adverbials. We elicited for a selection of adverbs, which include conditionals just like ‘before' and ‘after', forms for period adverbs just like ‘the initially time', ‘the last time', and also one words pertaining to times of day, week, month and 12 months. Results: The words we elicited are beneath:
Table 1: Time adverbials
|Time adverbs | | | | | |before |asati [third person] |usati [you] OR PERHAPS |da sati [I] | | | | |usati wa |asati da | | |after |a | | | | |while |ۗči [marker for 3rd] |u ۗči [you] |di ۗči [I] | | |when/if |kana OR pennsylvania | | | | | | | | | | |first period |tanga [ka tanga] | | | | |last time |pedzi cera [ku] | | | | |everytime |ireya | | | | |next period: |kana [conditional |pa [certain] | | | |when [certain] |pa | | | | |when conditional more | | | | | |until |kuti | | | | | | | | | | |cause/effect | | | | | |because |nekuti | | | | |then |doku | | |
I dedicated to time adverbs below. The first two indicate an action, contingent after another action. While implies action taking place during one other action; once indicates that something may happen, during a particular time:
Desk 2: ‘before' ‘after' ‘while' ‘when/if' | | | | | | |before |asati [third person] |usati [you] OR PERHAPS |da sati [I] | | | | |usati wa |asati da | | |after |a | | | | |while |ۗči [marker pertaining to 3rd] |u ۗči [you] |di...